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Infection and Global Health Research Division

Research at the University of St Andrews School of Medicine


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Pathogen exchange at the human wildlife interface – a comprehensive molecular study on vector-borne disease in rural Sulawesi, Indonesia

PI: Janet Cox-Singh, School of Medicine


Vector-borne pathogen entry into the human population from macaque monkeys is on-going in Southeast Asia, currently the best-known example is zoonotic malaria. The rural poor, the wildlife they encounter and the potential exchange of pathogens between humans and wildlife is not known in much of the world, including Sulawesi, yet emerging infections of zoonotic origin that become epidemic and pandemic are feared.

We are focussing on the wild Sulawesi macaque monkeys and bi-directional pathogen exchange in remote rural communities. The study will draw attention to the needs of remote communities, particularly health needs and the degree of poverty. More specifically the study will identify vector-borne disease exposure in each community in a way that will identify reservoirs of disease, shared host and mosquito vectors. This information will inform the rational design of strategies to prevent vector borne disease and immediately offer a means to improve the health and well-being of the rural poor.

Team Members

Dr Cyrus J. Daneshvar, University Hospital Plymouth NHS Trust, UK
Dr Isra Wahid, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia
Dr Irfan Idris, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia
Dr Dwi Kusuma Sari, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia
Dr Muh Fauzi, School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK
Hajar Hasan MPH, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia
Zulfikar Basrul DVM., MSc, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia
Sri Nur Rahmi MSc, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia
Mila Karmila MSc, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia
Muhammad Anshari BS, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia
Dhimaz Rizky, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia


Plasmodium knowlesi – clinical isolate genome sequencing to inform translational same-species model system for severe malaria Damilola R. Oresegun, Cyrus John Daneshvar, Janet Cox-Singh. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 2021 vol. 11

Plasmodium knowlesi Janet Cox-Singh. Parasitology 2018 vol. 145 pp. 1-5

Plasmodium knowlesi – an emerging pathogen M.A. Ahmed, Janet Cox-Singh. ISBT Science Series 2015 vol. 10 pp. 134-140

Plasmodium knowlesi Janet Cox-Singh, Richard Culleton. Trends in Parasitology 2015 vol. 31

Human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi – zoonotic malaria Janet Cox-Singh. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2015 vol. 21 pp. 640-648

Plasmodium knowlesi genome sequences from clinical isolates reveal extensive genomic dimorphism Miguel Monsanto Pinheiro, Md Atique Ahmed, Theo Sanderson, Thomas D Otto, Woon Chan Lu, Sanjeev Krishna, Julian C Rayner, Janet Cox-Singh. PLoS One 2015 vol. 10

Disease progression in Plasmodium knowlesi malaria is linked to variation in invasion gene family members Atique M. Ahmed, Miguel Monsanto Pinheiro, Paul C. Divis, Angela Siner, Ramlah Zainudin, Ing Tien Wong, Chan Woon Lu, Sarina K. Singh-Khaira, Sean Lynch, Matthias Willmann, Balbir Singh, Sanjeev Krishna, Janet Cox-Singh. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 2014 vol. 8

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Evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi Deshka Foster, Janet Cox-Singh, Dayang S. A. Mohamad, Sanjeev Krishna, Pek P. Chin, Balbir Singh. Malaria Journal 2014 vol. 13

Susceptibility of human plasmodium knowlesi infections to anti-malarials Farrah A. Fatih, Henry M. Staines, Angela Siner, Mohammed Atique Ahmed, Lu Chan Woon, Erica M. Pasini, Clemens H. M. Kocken, Balbir Singh, Janet Cox-Singh, Sanjeev Krishna. Malaria Journal 2013 vol. 12

Zoonotic malaria Janet Cox-Singh. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 2012 vol. 25 pp. 530-536

Cytoadherence and virulence – the case of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria Farrah A. Fatih, Angela Siner, Atique Ahmed, Lu Chan Woon, Alister G. Craig, Balbir Singh, Sanjeev Krishna, Janet Cox-Singh. Malaria Journal 2012 vol. 11

Severe malaria – a case of fatal Plasmodium knowlesi infection with post-mortem findings Janet Cox-Singh, Jessie Hiu, Sebastian B. Lucas, Paul C. Divis, Mohammad Zulkarnaen, Patricia Chandran, Kum T. Wong, Patricia Adem, Sherif R. Zaki, Balbir Singh, Sanjeev Krishna. Malaria Journal 2010 vol. 9

Malaria: what can apes teach humans?  Janet Cox-Singh. Future Microbiology 2010 vol. 5 pp. 1157-1160

Clinical and parasitological response to oral chloroquine and primaquine in uncomplicated human Plasmodium knowlesi infections Cyrus Daneshvar, Timothy M. E. Davis, Janet Cox-Singh, Mohammad Z. Rafa’ee, Siti K. Zakaria, Paul C. S. Divis, Balbir Singh. Malaria Journal 2010 vol. 9

Knowlesi malaria in Vietnam Janet Cox-Singh. Malaria Journal 2009 vol. 8

Clinical and Laboratory Features of Human Plasmodium knowlesi Infection Cyrus Daneshvar, Timothy M. E. Davis, Janet Cox-Singh, Mohammad Zakri Rafa’ee, Siti Khatijah Zakaria, Paul C. S. Divis, Balbir Singh. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2009 vol. 49 pp. 852-860

Plasmodium knowlesi from archival blood films Kim-Sung Lee, Janet Cox-Singh, George Brooke, Asmad Matusop, Balbir Singh
International Journal for Parasitology 2009 vol. 39 pp. 1125-1128

Morphological features and differential counts of Plasmodium knowlesi parasites in naturally acquired human infections Kim-Sung Lee, Janet Cox-Singh, Balbir Singh. Malaria Journal 2009 vol. 8

Micro-geographic risk factors for malarial infection Ward P. Myers, Andrea P. Myers, Janet Cox-Singh, Hui C. Lau, Benny Mokuai, Richard Malley. Malaria Journal 2009 vol. 8

Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in humans is widely distributed and potentially life threatening Janet Cox-Singh, Timothy M. E. Davis, Kim-Sung Lee, Sunita S. G. Shamsul, Asmad Matusop, Shanmuga Ratnam, Hasan A. Rahman, David J. Conway, Balbir Singh. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2008 vol. 46 pp. 165-171

Knowlesi malaria: newly emergent and of public health importance? Janet Cox-Singh, Balbir Singh, Janet Cox-Singh. Trends in Parasitology 2008 vol. 24 pp. 406-410

A large focus of naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi infections in human beings B Singh, L K Sung, A Matusop, A Radhakrishnan, S S G Shamsul, J Cox-Singh, Andrew Thomas, D J Conway, Janet Cox-Singh. Lancet 2004 vol. 363 pp. 1017-1024

The impact of ecological conditions on the prevalence of malaria among orangutans. Nathan D. Wolfe, William B. Karesh, Annelisa M. Kilbourn, Janet Cox-Singh, Edwin J. Bosi, Hasan A. Rahman, Adria Tassy Prosser, Balbir Singh, Mahedi Andau, Andrew Spielman. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2002 vol. 2 pp. 97-103

Sensitivity of the nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for Brugia malayi and significance of ‘free’ DNA in PCR-based assays J Cox-Singh, A S Pomrehn, N D Wolfe, H A Rahman, H Y Lu, B Singh, Janet Cox-Singh. International Journal for Parasitology 2000 vol. 30 pp. 1177-1179

A genus- and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction malaria detection assay for epidemiologic studies B Singh, A Bobogare, J Cox-Singh, G Snounou, M S Abdullah, H A Rahman, Janet Cox-Singh. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1999 vol. 60 pp. 687-692

Increased sensitivity of malaria detection by nested polymerase chain reaction using simple sampling and DNA extraction J Cox-Singh, S Mahayet, M S Abdullah, B Singh, Janet Cox-Singh. International Journal for Parasitology 1997 vol. 27 pp. 1575-1577

Detection of malaria in Malaysia by nested polymerase chain reaction amplification of dried blood spots on filter papers Balbir Singh, Janet Cox-Singh, Andy Olivier Miller, Mohammed Abdulmuttaleb M Abdullah, Georges Snounou, Hasan Abdul Rahman. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1996 vol. 90 pp. 519-521


Principal Investigator


Dr Janet Cox Singh

Senior Lecturer


Research Partnership between MRC-Newton and The Indonesion Science Fund.

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